Motivational Interviewing

Title: Motivational Interviewing

Authors: Jennifer Hettema, Julie Steele, and William R. Miller

Published InAnnual Review of Clinical Psychology, Volume 1 (2005), Pages 91-111


Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centered, directive therapeutic style to enhance readiness for change by helping clients explore and resolve ambivalence.  An evolution of Rogers’s person-centered counseling approach, MI elicits the client’s own motivations for change. The rapidly growing evidence base for MI is summarized in a new meta-analysis of 72 clinical trials spanning a range of target problems. The average short-term between-group effect size of MI was 0.77, decreasing to 0.30 at follow-ups to one year. Observed effect sizes of MI were larger with ethnic minority populations, and when the practice of MI was not manual-guided. The highly variable effectiveness of MI  cross providers, populations, target problems, and settings suggests a need to understand and specify how MI exerts its effects. Progress toward a theory of MI is described, as is research on how clinicians develop proficiency in this method.

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Hettema et al., 2005

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